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June 03, 2019

Good Morning,

NASA is planning ahead. They have already selected the landing site for their mission to Mars in 2020. That's a good way to beat the crowds.

Learn about this and more interesting stories from the scientific community in today's issue.

Until Next Time,
Erin




*-- NASA photo showcases landing site for Mars 2020 --*

A new photo captured by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and shared online this week features the landing site for the space agency's Mars 2020 mission.

The Mars 2020 rover, scheduled to launch next year, is expected to land in the Jezero Crater, located in a region of Mars known as the Syrtis Major quadrangle.

The crater is thought to have once been filled with water, and its watery history is visible in the sedimentary formations that texture its interior surface, as well as its outer contours. The new MRO image showcases the remnants of an ancient delta where in-flowing rivers once entered, bringing water and sediment.

Channeling patterns move both to and from Jezero Crater, and in the MRO photo, fans and deltas can be seen extending out from many of the channels.

"Examination of spectral data acquired from orbit show that some of these sediments have minerals that indicate chemical alteration by water," NASA said. "Here in Jezero Crater delta, sediments contain clays and carbonates."

NASA regularly relies on MRO to scout potential landing spots. As the latest MRO image makes clear, the Mars 2020 rover -- and its impressive suite of instruments -- will have plenty of interesting sedimentary structures to investigate. The rover's scientific mission will help scientists better understand Mars' watery past.

Earlier this year, NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine detailed the agency's plans for visiting the moon and Mars.

"For the first time, we are going to cache samples on Mars," he said. "For the first time, we are going to fly a helicopter on another world with the Mars Helicopter."

*-- Scientists claim ancient supernova led humans to walk upright --*

Hot DealsThe authors of a new study argue an ancient supernova triggered a series of events that ended with early humans walking upright.

According to the latest research, published this week in the Journal of Geology, a series supernovae spawned cosmic radiation that began bombarding Earth some 8 million years ago. The radiation peaked 2.6 million years ago, scientists claim.

The constant supply of cosmic particles ionized the atmosphere, scientists claim. Authors of the new paper hypothesize ionization increased the rate of loud-to-ground lightning strikes, sparking forest fires across the globe.

"It is thought there was already some tendency for hominins to walk on two legs, even before this event," Adrian Melott, professor emeritus of physics and astronomy at the University of Kansas, said in a news release. "But they were mainly adapted for climbing around in trees. After this conversion to savanna, they would much more often have to walk from one tree to another across the grassland, and so they become better at walking upright. They could see over the tops of grass and watch for predators. It's thought this conversion to savanna contributed to bipedalism as it became more and more dominant in human ancestors."

Scientists found evidence of large supernovae explosions, originating from 160 light-years away, on the ocean floor. Iron-60 deposits found in seafloor samples all over the world suggest the supernovae exploded during the transition from the Pliocene Epoch to the Ice Age.

"We calculated the ionization of the atmosphere from cosmic rays which would come from a supernova about as far away as the iron-60 deposits indicate," Melott said. "It appears that this was the closest one in a much longer series. We contend it would increase the ionization of the lower atmosphere by 50-fold. Usually, you don't get lower-atmosphere ionization because cosmic rays don't penetrate that far, but the more energetic ones from supernovae come right down to the surface -- so there would be a lot of electrons being knocked out of the atmosphere."

The lower-atmosphere ionization resulted in a glut of electrons, scientists claim. The extra electrons formed accessible electrical pathways from cloud to ground, encouraging an uptick in lightning strikes.

"Ordinarily, in the lightning process, there's a buildup of voltage between clouds or the clouds and the ground -- but current can't flow because not enough electrons are around to carry it. So, it has to build up high voltage before electrons start moving," Melott said.

Supernovae-triggered ionization and the subsequent flood of electrons lowered the voltage threshold. More lightning strikes caused an increased in wildfires, according to researchers. Global carbon deposits confirm the link between an ancient abundance of fires and the cosmic-ray bombardment.

"The observation is that there's a lot more charcoal and soot in the world starting a few million years ago," Melott said. "It's all over the place, and nobody has any explanation for why it would have happened all over the world in different climate zones."

The increase in forest forests, combined with global climate change, encouraged the formation of grasslands. Open landscapes required travel by two feet. Though researchers have never before linked bipedalism with cosmic rays, previous studies have suggested the transition from woodlands to savanna encouraged the evolution of upright walking.